Transcript profiling of chitosan


Metrics details. Resistance inducers have been used in annual crops as an alternative for disease control. Wood perennial fruit trees, such as those of the citrus species, are candidates for treatment with resistance inducers, such as salicylic acid SA and chitosan CHI. However, the involved mechanisms in resistance induced by elicitors in citrus are currently few known.

In the present manuscript, we report information regarding the transcriptional changes observed in sweet orange in response to exogenous applications of SA and CHI using RNA-seq technology. In addition, SA treatment promoted the induction of a subset of genes involved in several metabolic processes, such as redox states and secondary metabolism, which are associated with biotic stress. For both SA and CHI treatments, the auxin pathway genes were repressed, but SA treatment promoted induction in the ethylene and jasmonate acid pathway genes, in addition to repressing the abscisic acid pathway genes.

Chitosan treatment altered some hormone metabolism pathways. We expanded the available information regarding induced defense by elicitors in a species of Citrus that is susceptible to various diseases and identified the molecular mechanisms by which this defense might be mediated.

Gene Expression 3: Using RNA sequencing to analyze gene expression

Citrus is one of the most important crops around the world. Brazil is currently the largest producer of sweet oranges and is the largest producer and exporter of freezer concentrate and not-from-concentrate orange juice [ 1 ]. However, one of the limiting factors that threatens the growth and productivity of citrus production are citrus diseases. The integrated management of plant IMP diseases advocates alternate technologies, such as biological control and genetic resistance, to reduce the deleterious effects of pathogens.

One strategy that may contribute to disease reduction is the use of elicitors to improve the natural resistance of the plant. SA is a phenolic compound produced by plants, and its biosynthesis and signaling pathways have been well characterized, demonstrating its important role as a signal involved in the plant defense against pathogens [ 2 ].

The biosynthesis of SA may culminate in the expression of resistance genes that promote systemic acquired resistance SAR. During infection, SA accumulates at the site of pathogen penetration, acting in the hypersensitivity reaction, and is also distributed to other parts of the plants as a mobile signal, as methyl salicylate, to induce a range of defense responses [ 3 ]. Many plants are not able to deploy these mechanisms effectively.

Studies on the exogenous application of SA in plants have revealed that it may induce systemic resistance and promote the accumulation of pathogenesis-related PR proteins [ 4 ]. The effectiveness of SA treatment has been verified against diseases caused by virus [ 5 ], fungi [ 67 ], and bacteria [ 89 ]. The potential for the exogenous application of SA to increase PR protein expression in bean plants and to reduce local lesions caused by A1MV was also demonstrated [ 5 ].

SA treatment promoted the resistance of asparagus against Fusarium oxysporum f. Similar results were obtained in tomato plants, where the application of SA to the roots reduced vascular browning caused by F. SA treatment was also effective in inducing several PR proteins in grapevine leaves [ 10 ].

In addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of SA applications against virus and fungi, studies have reported the effects of exogenous applications of SA for the control of bacterial diseases. There was an increase in the resistance of tobacco against Erwinia carotovora following SA treatment, which promoted reductions in disease symptoms and bacterial multiplication [ 11 ].

A recent study demonstrated the potential for SA treatment to attenuate the symptoms of citrus canker in sweet orange [ Citrus sinensis L.

In grapevine, CHI treatment was effective against powdery mildew, reducing disease severity and increasing the polyphenol content [ 18 ]. A recent study showed that CHI can act on the phenylpropanoid pathway, increasing the levels of phenolic compounds in tomato plants and contributing to the reduction of bacterial spots [ 19 ].

In fruit trees, much of the research conducted on CHI treatments has been focused on post-harvest treatment, due to the ability of this polysaccharide to form a semi-permeable biofilm that modifies the atmosphere and reduces losses due to perspiration and dehydration, thus increasing the shelf life of fruits.

Furthermore, CHI treatment may lead to the induction of resistance in fruits [ 2021 ]. Previously, researchers evaluated the induction of resistance in plants by analyzing individual mechanisms involved in the stress response. However, these strategies contribute little to the comprehension of the defense-related mechanisms promoted by elicitors of resistance. Large-scale studies of gene expression have been increasingly conducted to assess the effects of elicitors on plant metabolism.

The transcriptional profile of sorghum following exogenous applications of SA showed the induction of several defense genes, such as numerous PR genes and members of the phenylpropanoid and jasmonic acid JA pathway, showing patterns of synergistic effects between SA and JA, as well as mutual antagonism for the regulation of some genes [ 22 ].

For CHI-treated Arabidopsis thaliana that was challenged with Botrytis cinereathe transcriptome profile showed that the polysaccharide was able to induce camalexin biosynthesis genes through of the CERK1-independent pathway [ 24 ]. Although studies examining the exogenous application of SA on citrus are available, these studies lack the information regarding the changes in the general profile that are caused by the elicitor.

To provide a large-scale study of gene expression in citrus treated with SA and CHI, and considering the important role, these elicitors have played in inducing defense mechanisms in several species, in the present study we aimed to evaluate the changes in the transcript pattern in sweet orange plants induced by these elicitors. The Illumina platform has been widely used to generate transcriptional profiles though RNA-seq, providing greater accuracy in measuring the levels of transcript.Vector mosquitoes inflict more human suffering than any other organism — and kill more than one million people each year.

The mosquito genome projects facilitated research in new facets of mosquito biology, including functional genetic studies in the primary African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti.

RNA interference- RNAi- mediated gene silencing has been used to target genes of interest in both of these disease vector mosquito species. This technically straightforward, high-throughput, and relatively inexpensive methodology, which is compatible with long double stranded RNA dsRNA or small interfering RNA siRNA molecules, has been used for the successful knockdown of a number of different genes in A. Following larval feedings, knockdown, which is verified through qRT-PCR or in situ hybridizationcan persist at least through the late pupal stage.

This methodology may be applicable to a wide variety of mosquito and other insect species, including agricultural pests, as well as other non-model organisms. In addition to its utility in the research laboratory, in the future, chitosan, an inexpensive, non-toxic and biodegradable polymer, could potentially be utilized in the field. Blood feeding vector mosquitoes of the Anopheline and Aedine genera transmit disease-causing agents responsible for several of the worst scourges of humankind.

An estimated 3. Malaria results from infection by Plasmodium sp. Aedes aegypti is the primary mosquito vector for dengue viruswhich causes dengue fever, a nonspecific febrile illness that is the most widespread and significant arboviral disease in the world.

Despite the devastating global impact of mosquito-borne illnesses on human health, effective means of preventing and treating these diseases are lacking. Mosquito control is presently the best method of disease prevention. The potential for controlling arthropod-borne diseases by the genetic manipulation of vector insects has been recognized for over four decades 3.

Transgenic strains of A. These advancements have challenged researchers to identify novel genetic targets for vector control and additional means of manipulating gene function in vector mosquitoes. Alteration of gene expression during development, as was the case in female-flightless mosquitoes 4may promote the elucidation of novel vector control strategies. However, largely due to technical challenges, the functions of very few genes have been characterized during development of A.

Since its discovery in C. Long dsRNA molecules typically bp or custom siRNAs targeting a particular sequence can be used in the research laboratory for silencing any gene of interest. By managing when interfering RNA is delivered, researchers can control the time at which gene silencing initiates. This advantage is useful as it can be used to overcome challenges such as developmental lethality or sterility, which can hinder the production and maintenance of strains bearing heritable mutations, an expensive and labor-intensive process that is not yet available in all insect species.

Although the degree of gene silencing by RNAi can vary from gene to gene, tissue to tissue, and animal to animal, RNAi is widely used for functional analysis of genes in mosquitoes and other insects 8,9.

For a detailed history and comparison of the use of these three techniques in insects, please refer to Yu et al 8.

We have successfully used microinjection 10 as a means of delivering siRNAs to target developmental genes in A. However, this labor-intensive delivery strategy requires both a microinjection setup and a skilled hand. Moreover, microinjection is stressful to the organism, a confounding factor, particularly when behavioral phenotypes will be assessed. Finally, microinjection delivery cannot be extended to the field for vector control.

As an alternative, soaking the organism in interfering RNA solution has also become a popular means of inducing gene silencing, as it is convenient and requires little equipment or labor. Soaking has primarily been applied in insect cell line studies 8but in a recent study, knockdown was achieved in A.

However, for studies involving analysis of multiple experimental groups or phenotypes, soaking is rather costly. Lopez-Martinez et al. This approach does cut the costs associated with whole animal immersion, but is more expensive than microinjection and may be limited in its application to species that can tolerate high osmotic pressures.

For these reasons, for post-embryonic studies, delivery of interfering RNA with ingested food is a viable alternative strategy. Although ingestion-based strategies do not work in all insect species, perhaps most notably Drosophila melanogasteroral delivery of interfering RNA mixed with food has promoted gene silencing in a variety of insects 8,17including A.

We described chitosan nanoparticle-mediated RNAi in A. Here, methodology for this RNAi procedure, which involves entrapping of interfering RNA by the polymer chitosan, is detailed. This methodology is relatively inexpensive, requires little equipment and labor 19and facilitates high-throughput analysis of multiple phenotypes, including analysis of behaviors 20,Chitosan is a natural biopolymer modified from chitins which act as a potential biostimulant and elicitor in agriculture.

It is non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible which favors potentially broad application. It enhances the physiological response and mitigates the adverse effect of abiotic stresses through stress transduction pathway via secondary messenger s. Chitosan treatment stimulates photosynthetic rate, stomatal closure through ABA synthesis; enhances antioxidant enzymes via nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide signaling pathways, and induces production of organic acids, sugars, amino acids and other metabolites which are required for the osmotic adjustment, stress signaling, and energy metabolism under stresses.

It is also known to form complexes with heavy metals and used as tool for phytoremediation and bioremediation of soil. Besides, this is used as antitranspirant compound through foliar application in many plants thus reducing water use and ensures protection from other negative effects.

Based on such beneficial properties, chitosan is utilized in sustainable agricultural practices owing to changing climates. Our review gathers the recent information on chitosan centered upon the abiotic stress responses which could be useful in future crop improvement programs.

Chitosan/Interfering RNA Nanoparticle Mediated Gene Silencing in Disease Vector Mosquito Larvae

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Plant Physiol Biochem — Crop Prot — J Plant Physiol — Exp Mycol — Bulg J Agric Sci 24 3 — Google Scholar.

J Exp Bot — Ashraf M, Foolad MR Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot — Front Mar Sci. Crop J 5 5 — Agric For Meteorol — Kasetsart J —6. Chakraborty M, Karun A, Mitra A Accumulation of phenilpropanoid derivatives in chitosan-induced cell suspension culture of Cocos nucifera. J Plant Physiol. Sci Rep Plant Sci —— J Integr Plant Biol — Hortic Environ Biotechnol — Chibu H, Shibayama H Effects of chitosan applications on the growth of several crops.

Yamaguchi pp — Plant Biotechnol Rep — Plant Physiol — J Anim Plant Sci 21 1 — Tree Physiol In Singh AL ed Advances in crop physiol, pp 63—Ontology highlight. A significant overlapping between the anoxic and heat shock responses has been observed by whole-genome microarray analysis. Experiment Overall Design: Two biological replicates for each condition.

Plant physiology 3. Anoxia induces several heat shock proteins, and a mild heat pretreatment can acclimatize Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to subsequent anoxic treatment. A significant overlap between the anoxic and the heat responses was observed by whole-genome microarray analysis. Among the transcription factors induced by both heat and anoxia, the heat shock factor A2 HsfA2know PMID: Omics DI.

Advanced Search. Omics score: 0. The heat-inducible transcription factor HsfA2 enhances anoxia tolerance in Arabidopsis. Similar Datasets. Effects of heat, anoxia, and combined heat-anoxia treatments. Project description: Anoxia induces several heat shock proteins and a heat pre-treatment can acclimatize Arabidopsis seedlings to a subsequent anoxic treatment. Two biological replicates for each condition. Transcription profiling of Arabidopsis dark grown seedlings response to 6h-long treatment with 90 mM sucrose.

Experiment Overall Design: Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia glabra gl was used in this study. Seeds were sterilized with diluted bleach 10 min incubation in 1. Two independent, replicated experiments were performed for sucrose treatments. Each independent experiment consisted of four replicated seedlings cultures, pooled after RNA extraction.

Transcription profiling by array of Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate the interaction between glucose and cytokinin signal transduction pathway. The 5-d-old homogenous seedlings were washed five times with sterile water and lastly with liquid half strength MS medium without sugar to remove residual exogenous sugar. In order to deplete internal sugars seedlings were grown in sugar free liquid half strength MS medium for 24 h in dark. RNA was extracted and microarray analysis was performed.

Gene expression of Arabidopsis leaves under heat stress and during recovery. Project description: To understand plant adaptation to heat stress, gene expression profiles of Arabidopsis leaves under heat stress, during recovery and control condition were obtained using microarray.

Microarray data listed responsible candidate genes for glycerolipid metabolism. Overall design: Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia Col-0 seeds were surface-sterilised and sown on an agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog medium. Vegetative plants were subjected to high temperature for a day, then continued to be grown under normal condition for a day.

Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia Col-0 seeds were surface-sterilised and sown on an agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog medium. Transcription profiling of light and carbon signaling interactions in Arabidopsis.

Project description: A. Two-week-old seedlings were transferred to fresh MS media without nitrogen and sucrose and dark-adapted for 48 hours. Effects of anoxia and sucrose on seedling growth.Chitosan plays an important role in regulating growth and eliciting defense in many plant species. However, the exact metabolic response of plants to chitosan is still not clear.

The present study performed an integrative analysis of metabolite profiles in chitosan-treated wheat seedlings and further investigated the response of enzyme activities and transcript expression related to the primary carbon C and nitrogen N metabolism. Metabolite profiling revealed that chitosan could induce significant difference of organic acids, sugars and amino acids in leaves of wheat seedlings. A higher accumulation of sucrose content was observed after chitosan treatment, accompanied by an increase in sucrose phosphate synthase SPS and fructose 1, phosphatase FBPase activities as well as an up-regulation of relative expression level.

Several metabolites associated with tricarboxylic acid TCA cycle, including oxaloacetate and malate, were also improved along with an elevation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase PEPC and pyruvate dehydrogenase PDH activities. On the other hand, chitosan could also enhance the N reduction and N assimilation.

Together, these results suggested a pleiotropic modulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in wheat seedlings induced by chitosan and provided a significant insight into the metabolic mechanism of plants in response to chitosan for the first time, and it would give a basic guidance for the future application of chitosan in agriculture. Conventional crop production is increasingly being challenged by various problems such as decreased soil fertility and pollution due to the use of hazardous chemical pesticides and fertilizers at a global scale Vassilev et al.

In the same time, there has been mass awareness of quality and safety of food production. This situation escalates public concerns regarding the use of eco-friendly growth-regulators which contribute to not only improve plant growth and development but also produce organic greens Brown and Saa, Recently, biological polysaccharides have attracted increasing interest as a natural plant growth regulator.

Many recent findings clearly suggested that exogenous application of biological polysaccharides in a variety of crops played a positive role in growth, development and defense against biotic and abiotic stress, which had huge potential in the future sustainable crop production Rahman et al. Chitosan is a natural linear polysaccharide, derived from chitin that is often considered as the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature following plant cellulose and mainly occurs as a structural component in the cell walls of fungi and yeasts and in the exoskeletons of insects, nematodes and arthropods e.

In combination with its non-toxicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability, chitosan exhibits numerous interesting physicochemical and biological properties, which make it suitable for use in many fields Khor and Lim, ; Muzzarelli, In particular, those chitosan with low molecular weight shows much improved water solubility and better bioactivities Kim and Rajapakse, ; Aam et al.

In agriculture, chitosan have been used to activate plant innate immunity against plant diseases Khairullin et al.

transcript profiling of chitosan

Yin et al. Apart from biotic stress, it was also reported that chitosan could improve the abiotic stress tolerance of plants.

Spraying chitooligosaccharide onto plant leaves was shown to promote the cadmium and salt stress tolerance under greenhouse conditions Zou et al. On the other hand, chitosan has attracted wide interest as a potential bio-stimulator Malerba and Cerana, It has been reported that chitosan could promote the growth of orchid tissue Nge et al. Recently, the transcriptional response to a chitin oligosaccharide in Arabidopsis was conducted by Winkler et al. Consequently, based on the obviously promoting effect on plants, a variety of agricultural applications of chitosan have been developed recently.

Taking China as an example, currently, there are more than 50 chitosan-based bio-products with official issued certificates in agriculture. However, as for the bioactivity of chitosan on promoting plant growth, previous studies mostly focused on the apparent effects of chitosan on the plant physiology and growth characteristics.Ontology highlight.

Defence elicitors can stimulate plant defence mechanisms through a phenomenon known as priming. This work aims to study priming of a commercial formulation of the elicitor Chitosan. Treatments with Chitosan result in induced resistance in solanaceous and brassicaceous plants. Large-scale transcriptomic analysis in this study revealed that Chitosan primes gene expression at early time-points after infection.

Inoculations were performed four days after treatment with Chitosan, and leaf discs from four independent plants biological replicates per treatment were sampled at 6 h, 9 h and 12 h post-inoculation hpi with water mock or B. Omics DI. Advanced Search. Omics score: 0. Similar Datasets. Arabidopsis Col-0 and cerk1 treated with chitosan or water. Project description: Microbe-associated molecular pattern MAMP -triggered immunity MTI is the first layer of molecular defense encountered by pathogens when they attempt to infect plants.

Genetic screening and mutant knock-out lines have largely contributed to our knowledge of MTI. However, genetic screening is confined to phenotype-causing mutations and scarcely enables the discovery of redundantly-acting proteins.

We sought to discover protein components that contribute in MTI, using a phenotype-independent approach to discern nucleus-localized proteins after MTI induction.

We report on the nuclear proteome of Columbia-0 Col-0 and chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1 cerk1 mutant plants 15 min after MTI induction. Our approach revealed that MAMP-treated cerk1 plants had many proteins in common with Coltreated plants following chitosan treatment. Detailed analysis of the identified proteins revealed a nuclear accumulation of transcriptional regulators and transcription factors, DNA-modifying enzymes, RNA-binding proteins and ribosomal proteins. No novel MAPKs were found although Receptor for activated C kinase 1, a scaffold protein involved in defense, and a nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat protein, implicated in resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans, were discovered in the nucleus of chitosan-treated plants and absent from water-treated control plants.

Transcription profiling by array of Arabidopsis after treatment with chitosan. Project description: We treated Arabidopsis seedlings with chitosan and carried out a transcript profiling analysis GeneChip microarrays in order to identify genes and transcription factors regulated by chitosan. The results showed that jasmonate and defense responsive genes, camalexin and lignin biosynthetic genes were among genes up-regulated by chitosan.

Several transcription factors are also strongly induced by chitosan. The results suggested that chitosan can be used as a strong elicitor of defense pathways. Experiment Overall Design: Arabidopsis thaliana, ecotype Columbia Col-0 seeds were sterilized for 7 min in 1.

Subsequently, the seeds were rinsed in abundant sterile water and transferred into 2. Experiment Overall Design:. Insight into the response of Bacillus cereus towards the polysaccharide chitosan. Project description: Comparison of chitosan-treated B. One-condition design comparision of treated vs.

Expression data of tomato fruit responses to Botrytis cinerea. Project description: Tomato fruit ripening is associated with a dramatic increase in susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold. Mature green fruit, prior to ripening, are largely resistant to B. We used microarrays to detail the gene expression changes that are induced by B. Keywords: plant responses to pathogens Overall design: Tomato fruit at mature green and red ripe stages were wound inoculated with a water suspension of B.

Twenty four hours post inoculation fruit pericarp and epicarp tissue around and including the inoculation sites was collected and the total RNA extracted.

Total RNA was also collected from healthy and mock inoculated fruit. Transcription profiling of tomato fruit responses to Botrytis cinerea.We are really grateful to the guides on these tours for making them so interesting and special.

Chitosan – Polygonum cuspidatum, induktor hipersenzitivne reakcije biljaka

This vacation was our honeymoon. We had just got married in the states a few days prior to the start of our trip.

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transcript profiling of chitosan

This was helpful to enter in the destination to the car's GPS to help us get around. Not only did it suggest what to do each day, but it gave you a little history of each item. Since we were on our own most of the trip, these little blurbs of info gave me a nice bit of history, the perfect amount.

The section at the end that provided helpful tips on traveling, money, tipping, weather, packing, etc. I could not have asked for a better experience at any stage of planning or the trip itself.

transcript profiling of chitosan

Sofia was very, very helpful. This is our second tour with Nordic Visitor. Last year we went to Greenland was impressed with Nordic Visitor and booked another vacation. The location of hotels and quality of hotels was excellent.

All hotels were close to train stations and also close to tourist activities. As this was our first time to Sweden, Denmark and Norway I did have questions and Sofia was very quick to answer them. This is our type of vacation as we prefer self guided over group tours.

I would recommend your company and in fact have already done so. Again, a big thank you to Sofia. We had no issues during our stay. The hotels were well located in relation to the train stations, and were of a high standard.

The voucher system worked well and presented no difficulties. Pity raj tv live kannada the rain in Bergen, but the locals told us, that it always rains in Bergen. Already recommended the trip to friends. Thanks for all your assistance prior to the visit. I cannot say enough good things about our tour with Nordic Visitor. Every interaction, from first contact to the tour itself, was a pleasure.

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